Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgenders (TG) often face stigma, discrimination, poverty, violation of human rights, and homophobia. Negative attitudes and violence toward MSM and TG are common worldwide and, in fact, are condoned by many societies. Structural and institutional discrimination and violence against MSM and TG are supported by law enforcement and healthcare providers, who often perpetrate widespread corruption, intimidation, and harassment against gay men, MSM, and TG (Medina et al., 2006; Chakaprani et al., 2002; Khan et al., 2005). In this way, violence against MSM and TG is a form of gender-based violence (GBV).
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