Appropriate Prevention and Care Services for Men who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People in Resource-Limited Settings. Smart, T (2009)

Appropriate Prevention and Care Services for Men who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People in Resource-Limited Settings. Smart, T (2009) “In countries without laws to protect sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men, only a fraction of the population has access to prevention. Conversely, in countries with legal protection and the protection of human rights for these people, many more have access to services. As a result, there are fewer infections, less demand for antiretroviral treatment and fewer deaths. Not only is it unethical not to protect these groups; it makes no sense from a health perspective. It hurts all of us.”

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Gender Identity, Violence, and HIV among MSM and TG: A Literature Review and a Call for Screening. Betron M and E Gonzalez-Figueroa (2009)

Gender Identity_and_Violence_in_MSM_and_TGs_2009-1

There are two primary goals of this review. First, it aims to synthesize the literature on violence and related forms of stigma and discrimination among MSM and TG, particularly those engaging in sex work, through a gender perspective. In doing so, it analyzes ways in which violence and S&D among MSM and TG are gender based. Second, the review looks at how violence and related S&D against MSM and TG affects vulnerability to HIV. 


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Identifying Violence against Most-at-Risk Populations: A Focus on MSM and Transgenders - Training Manual for Health Providers. Egremy G, M Betron, and A Eckman (2009)

Identifying Violence_against_Most-at-Risk_Populations_A_Focus_on_MSM_and_Transgenders_2009-1

Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgenders (TG) often face stigma, discrimination, poverty, violation of human rights, and homophobia. Negative attitudes and violence toward MSM and TG are common worldwide and, in fact, are condoned by many societies. Structural and institutional discrimination and violence against MSM and TG are supported by law enforcement and healthcare providers, who often perpetrate widespread corruption, intimidation, and harassment against gay men, MSM, and TG (Medina et al., 2006; Chakaprani et al., 2002; Khan et al., 2005). In this way, violence against MSM and TG is a form of gender-based violence (GBV).


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Prevention and Treatment of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Populations. WHO, UNDP and UNAIDS (2009)

Prevention and Treatment of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Populations. WHO, UNDP and UNAIDS (2009)
Surveillance and special surveys in many parts of the world show that the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is high among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people compared with men in the general population. These infections can be transmitted to their sexual partners, who are men and, in some parts of the world, frequently women as well. In some countries where the epidemic had previously been contained, and in countries with good practices, a resurgence of HIV and other STIs has been noted, in particular, among populations of MSM. The reasons for this resurgence are not well understood. A high HIV prevalence among MSM and transgender people is being reported from countries that had previously ignored or denied the existence of MSM in their populations.


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Mapping Transgender Groups, Organisations and Networks in South Asia. The Asia Pacific Coalition on Male Sexual Health (2008)

APCOM Report_TG_Mapping_South_Asia

According to the policy brief titled “The Value of Investing in MSM Programs in the Asia-Pacific Region”, for APCOM/USAID Health Policy Initiative (APCOM Policy Brief No. 1, March 2008), there is strong evidence establishing male-tomale sex as one of the driving forces of HIV transmission in the region. HIV prevalence among MSM and transgender populations ranges from 3% to 31% in Asia-Pacific countries (5 to 15 times higher than overall HIV prevalence). In India, for instance, the latest estimates by National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO), India, show that prevalence among MSM and transgender populations was 5.7% in 2006 as against the overall adult prevalence of 0.36%.

 

 

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Prevention and Treatment of HIV and Other STIs among Men who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Populations. WHO, UNAIDS and UNDP (2008)

Prevention and Treatment of HIV and Other STIs among Men who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Populations. WHO, UNAIDS and UNDP (2008) Surveillance and special surveys in many parts of the world show that the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is high among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people compared with men in the general population. These infections can be transmitted to their sexual partners, who are men and, in some parts of the world, frequently women as well. In some countries where the epidemic had previously been contained, and in countries with good practices, a resurgence of HIV and other STIs has been noted, in particular, among populations of MSM.


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Integrated Biological- Behavioral Surveillance among Most-at-Risk Groups in Indonesia, 2007: Surveillance Highlights- Waria. Department of Health, Statistics Indonesia, USAID, et al. (2007)

Integrated Biological- Behavioral Surveillance among Most-at-Risk Groups in Indonesia, 2007: Surveillance Highlights- Waria. The Department of Health Indonesia, The National AIDS Commission, Komisi Penanggulangan AIDS, et al (2007) In Indonesia, men who have assumed a female identity (transgenders or transvestites) are referred to as Waria. Prior surveillance data indicate that Waria tend to engage in risky sexual behaviors, and have high HIV prevalence.

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Of Transgender and Sin in Asia. Winter S (2006)

Of Transgender and Sin in Asia. Winter  S (2006) I was born male and identify as one. Until recently I hadn't asked myself why I had turned out this way. Yet many transpeople I know have long asked this question of themselves. What's more, there is a small army of researchers trying to uncover answers to the same question. Relatively few seem interested in going up to a trans person and simply asking him or her 'Why do you think you turned out this way?

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