The category “men who have sex with men” (or males who have sex with males - MSM) was developed in response to a recognition that not all male-to-male sexual behaviours falls within a framework of sexual orientation or identity. Within this behavioural category there are multiple frameworks of male-to-male sex, including those who self-identify as homosexuals/gay men, males who self-identify within a gendered framework, such as kothis and hijras, as well as normative males from the general male population who sexually access such gendered males, along with others, usually as the penetrating partner. Male-to-male behaviours also exist in a range of all-male institutions and occupational groups including prisons, juvenile homes, and the armed forces, along with truck drivers, and in other service industries. In this context, the sexual practice is primarily based on a lack of access to females, “body heat”, and immediate discharge. Further to this, there is also a concept of masti, or play, in which same sex behaviours are not seen as “real sex” but play. Significant levels of adolescent males and young men engage in this behaviours.
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